Piotr Wozniak

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E-mail address: woz2018 (@) supermemo (.) org (see: Apology)

If you see errors in my texts, please let me know.

Current research interest


spaced repetition

  • author of the first computer algorithm for spaced repetition (commercially known as SuperMemo)(1982-present)
  • co-founder of SuperMemo World, July 1991
  • President and Head of R&D at SuperMemo World (1991-1997)
  • founder of SuperMemo Research, an independent R&D unit at SuperMemo World (1997-present)
  • author of first implementations of SuperMemo (incl. SuperMemo 1.0 for DOS, 1987, and SuperMemo 7.0 for Windows, 1992)

incremental learning

  • the author of the concept of incremental reading (1999), first implemented in SuperMemo 10 (2000)
  • the author of the concept of neural creativity (2015), first implemented in SuperMemo 17 (2016)


Born: March 1962, Milanowek near Warsaw, Poland

Primary schools: (1969-1976): 8, 36, 72 and 30 in Poznan

Secondary school: (1976-1980): 9-th general education school, specialization: chemistry, biology and English

University education:

  • Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan (1980-1985), MS degree in molecular biology
  • University of Technology in Poznan (1985-1990), MS degree in computer science (individual specialization: applications of computer science in human biology). Master's Thesis: Optimization of learning. A new approach and computer application

Doctoral degree: University of Economics in Wroclaw, 1995. Dissertation Thesis: Economics of learning. New aspects in designing modern computer aided self-instruction systems

See also: My qualifications

For more details see: http://super-memory.com/english/company/wozniak.htm


I apologize for my "rules of conduct" that make it hard to communicate and work together on important projects, on occasion. In particular, I apologize:

  • My e-mail replies can be intermittent, delayed, chaotic or none! To process mail, I use incremental mail processing that is similar to incremental reading in SuperMemo. This makes it possible to prioritize individual pieces, focus on most important messages, work on messages creatively, and delay most of the remaining mail (often indefinitely). The process is partly stochastic, and I may stop working on threads even if my usual enthusiasm seems to indicate their priority is high enough. I may respond in minutes or in months even on important subjects within the same thread. I almost never decide not to reply, and the delay is occurring without a conscious decision. My poor reaction time comes from the insufficient ratio of time allocated to mail volume. I realize this makes all co-operation extremely difficult. If you write on a subject that is extremely important and still get no reply, you may re-send. Some pieces of mail get lost in transit.
  • I do not take on new projects. My schedule seems blocked and closed for years to come. My capacity to add more work hours per day has been exhausted by the end of the 1990s. If you have new ideas about projects related to SuperMemo, you would better write to Krzysztof Biedalak (CEO). Almost daily I get lovely mail with great visions about what SuperMemo might become. However, my work over incremental reading, science of sleep, or this site fills my days to the brim. I love to read all inspiring mail, esp. if it touches my favorite areas of research. Unfortunately, it would take an extraordinarily interesting idea to shunt my train to new tracks. Please keep writing nevertheless
  • I disappear for months at a time. When I work on an important project, I often cut off all my links with the outside world. This works wonders for focused work on a single subject. Naturally, this can be exasperating for everyone else, esp. that I send no notifications and all my mail is redirected to a colleague. The privacy level in my communications is dismal
  • I do not attend conferences or business meetings. In short, I do not travel. In this modern electronic world, I considering travelling an unnecessary risk, as well as a waste of energy and time. All my work can now be done over the Internet. I have never been aboard a plane. My last conference and the last business meeting took place in 1999. My last train trip took place in 2004. My most recent experience of smelling the interior of a car occurred in 2011. I have no driving license
  • I do not have a cell phone. I design my schedule around my circadian cycle using the Plan feature of SuperMemo. Phone calls at unpredictable moments of time make the execution of the schedule difficult, and for some slots, impossible. For the same reason, I do not use Internet telephony. This is explained in Planning a perfect productive day without stress. I am not a Luddite. I will use a phone for learning at some point in the future. However, I am still waiting for the right kind of SuperMemo that will make that worthwhile.

Considering the above, you may ask if I even like or care about other people. With all my work I hope to contribute to a better world. I love people! Love is often a problem. I need rational methods to temper and organize my enthusiasm for people, projects and ideas. I believe my attitude will be increasingly prevalent in creative professions. It is not dictated by lack of concern for others. It is dictated by efficiency! I apologize to anyone who feels offended.