Optimization of repetition spacing in the practice of learning

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This reference is used to annotate "History of spaced repetition" (2018) by Piotr Wozniak

The first ever peer reviewed spaced repetition algorithm was described in this 1994 publication:

A universal formula for computing inter-repetition intervals in paired-associate learning has been determined for the knowledge retention level of 95%. It is claimed that the formula could be used in the practice of learning for a wide range of subjects, regardless individual learner's capacity

This publication was originally written for Science, then Perception and Psychophysics (1991), Memory and Cognition (twice)(1992), and then other journals. In several rounds of peer review, it had to ping pong between biology and computer science. In the end, it transformed into a very different paper. It is no longer readable or enjoyable. It was accepted by Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalist whose open-minded reviewers did not do any further "damage". For some background on the origins see Algorithm SM-5.

See also: Problem with peer review on why it was so hard to publish the paper (Ralph Merkle story).


Quoted excerpts come from the following reference:

Title: Optimization of repetition spacing in the practice of learning

Authors: Wozniak, Gorzelanczyk

Journal: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis

Date: 1994

Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8023714

PDF: https://ane.pl/index.php/ane/article/view/1003/1003

Backlink: Two components of memory