SuperMemo Guru

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This site offers texts on memory, learning, sleep, creativity, problem solving, brain science, health, and education (2,314 pages, 29,328 edits)










For 100+ myths about memory, learning, sleep, and creativity see Myths


Older texts



  • FAQs: your questions


  • Summary: summary of the most important claims presented on this site




Color codes

Important notes: the most important ideas are marked in yellow. Those are snippets I want you to remember most from my texts. If you do not have time for reading, reviewing those notes will tell you roughly what I want to say. If you disagree, you can dig deeper in the text to figure out my reasoning

Excerpts: mark the most remarkable or influential words taken from other authors. At times, putting things in my own words would not do justice to the original

Personal anecdote. Why use anecdotes?
Personal anecdotes: if you have an impression that my opinions about education are distorted by my own experience, you are right. I have spent all my professional life on self-directed learning, while my 22 years of formal schooling remained a distant memory. With each improvement to my own learning, I recall those early years with less and less respect to the old ways of learning. My personal notes are marked with this colored template. You can skip them without losing on the message, or dig into my own recall to see how my opinions have been shaped or biased
Anecdotes: some stories from lives of great and/or ordinary people

Motto: some witty idea or quote from a wise man, usually from ages ago. A quote that sets the theme for a chapter. Those witticisms often help us realize that we are re-learning history over and over again. The ancients knew things many people fail to see today

Metaphors: some ideas are best presented in a metaphoric pop-science fashion. If you fully understand the text, skip metaphors. If you don't or if you are skeptical, see if metaphoric approach is more convincing. Metaphors help you build models that facilitate reasoning

SuperMemo insert. What is SuperMemo?
SuperMemo notes: are relevant only to those who care about SuperMemo. You can skip those inserts without missing main points
FAQ question. What are FAQs?
Frequently asked questions (FAQs): Interesting questions you might have about memory, learning, creativity, sleep, etc.
Archive warning: Why use literal archives?
Archive: Archive materials are presented for historic reasons. They may intentionally include wrong hypotheses or models, e.g. to illustrate the progression of thought