Who invented spaced repetition?

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FAQ question. What are FAQs?
Who invented spaced repetition?


Spaced repetition was invented by Piotr Wozniak in Poland in 1985. It was first implemented in software in 1987, and described in Optimization of learning (1990). It was first published in a peer reviewed journal in 1994 (see: Optimization of repetition spacing in the practice of learning).

The method has been promoted by SuperMemo World since 1991.

See also

This FAQ explains SuperMemo, a pioneer of spaced repetition software since 1987

Figure: In the early 1990s, we inadvertently initiated a myth that Hermann Ebbinghaus invented spaced repetition. Amazingly, the myth seems to be gaining in power, as if waiting for the emergence of the Semantic Web. The picture snapshot from Google was taken on Feb 7, 2020, my late mom's 99th birthday

Google search for forgetting curves
Google search for forgetting curves

Figure: Google search for "forgetting curve" (November 2017). The "serrated set" of forgetting curves dominates the search. Many of the pictures are labelled by wrong attribution with the name of Hermann Ebbinghaus. The origins of the picture are presented in Hermann Ebbinghaus (1885) and spaced repetition (1985) and Two components of memory